I am in the process of installing AlmaLinux 8, and I have encountered an issue where periods appear at the end of the “file rights list” when using the ls -l command following the installation and drive partitioning process.
This issue is making it challenging for me to work with the system effectively, and I’d like to find a solution to remove these periods during the OS installation and drive partitioning. I’ve attempted to disable SELinux, but the periods persist.
I understand that the presence of these periods might be related to extended attributes, such as SELinux labels or ACLs. However, I’d like to resolve this within the installation process itself to streamline the setup.
Can anyone provide guidance on how to prevent these periods from appearing in the ls -l output after the AlmaLinux 8 installation process? Any assistance would be greatly appreciated.
You mean the 11th character in the output (right after file mode bits):
drwxr-xr-x. 2 jlehtone jlehtone 2 13. 1. 2010 Music
i.e. the last character in
info ls writes (at least since RHEL 6):
Following the file mode bits is a single character that specifies whether an alternate access method such as an access control list applies to the file. When the character following the file mode bits is a space, there is no alternate access method. When it is a printing character, then there is such a method.
GNU ‘ls’ uses a ‘.’ character to indicate a file with a security context, but no other alternate access method.
A file with any other combination of alternate access methods is marked with a ‘+’ character.
The “dots” is thus not new any more. Why does that character make it difficult for you?
My motivation for removing these periods is as follows:
Nagios encounters issues when SELinux and additional file security rights are active on the "nagios.cmd" file, leading to difficulties in rescheduling the next service check.
CPanel experiences operational problems when SELinux is enabled. To address this, I aim to set up an installation process that deactivates SELinux right from the start, ensuring that I don't have to disable it later and maintaining the integrity of the original file settings, including the presence of periods (e.g., -rw-r--r--.) on files set during the OS installation.
Despite having used CentOS and now AlmaLinux with cPanel, I only discovered this issue when I started performing my own OS installations. My server providers format leased servers, and they do not have these periods on files when I initially receive the servers.
In summary, my primary concern is how to proactively disable SELinux and ACLs during the installation to avoid potential complications with software like Nagios and CPanel, as well as any unforeseen issues in the future.
Here is an answer I have not tried yet that is supposed to solve my problems. Has anyone else done this? Does it work as explained?
I understand your concerns regarding SELinux and ACLs and the challenges you’re facing with software like Nagios and cPanel. If you want to disable SELinux and ACLs during the AlmaLinux installation to prevent additional security features and complications, you can do so by following these steps:
Disable SELinux during Installation: During the AlmaLinux installation process, you can disable SELinux by adding the selinux=0 kernel parameter to the boot loader. Here's how: a. When you boot from the AlmaLinux installation media, you'll see a boot menu. b. Select the option to install AlmaLinux. c. When you see the bootloader menu with options like "Install AlmaLinux" and "Test this media & install AlmaLinux," press 'e' to edit the kernel parameters. d. Find the line that starts with "linux" and add selinux=0 at the end. e. Press 'Ctrl+X' to boot with the modified parameters. This will disable SELinux for the installation process.
Disable ACLs: To disable ACLs during installation, you can use the acl=no kernel parameter in a similar way as the SELinux parameter. Add acl=no at the end of the "linux" line during the installation process. Here's what the line might look like with both SELinux and ACLs disabled: bash Copy codelinux /vmlinuz ... selinux=0 acl=no ...
Complete the Installation: Proceed with the installation as usual. This will ensure that SELinux and ACLs are disabled during the initial setup.
By doing this, you can have a fresh AlmaLinux installation with SELinux and ACLs disabled right from the start. Please note that disabling these security features can have implications for system security, so make sure you understand the potential risks and consequences.
After the installation is complete, you can further customize the system and its security settings according to your specific needs. However, it’s recommended to keep security considerations in mind and take measures to secure your system in other ways if you choose to disable SELinux and ACLs.
The solution I found worked like a charm and I don’t have to worry about any more broken commands and no more dots or periods.
I found this information about Collectd and Nagios:
Collectd and Nagios are both popular open-source tools used for system monitoring and performance management, but they serve different purposes and have distinct characteristics. Here’s a comparison of Collectd and Nagios:
Collectd is primarily a data collection and performance monitoring tool. It gathers system statistics and metrics from various sources on a server, such as CPU usage, memory usage, disk I/O, and network traffic. It focuses on collecting data and doesn’t provide alerting or detailed event management.
Collectd collects performance data over time and can store it in various data stores like RRDtool, Graphite, InfluxDB, or other time-series databases. This data is valuable for historical analysis, capacity planning, and trend analysis.
Collectd has a modular architecture, allowing you to enable or create custom plugins to monitor specific aspects of your system. This extensibility makes it flexible and adaptable to various monitoring needs.
Collectd is designed to have a small resource footprint and can run in the background without consuming excessive system resources.
While Collectd is more focused on data collection, it can be integrated with other tools like Grafana, InfluxDB, or Prometheus to provide visualization and alerting capabilities based on the collected data.
Nagios is a comprehensive monitoring and alerting tool. It’s designed to monitor the health and availability of networked services, hosts, and applications. Nagios is known for its alerting capabilities, which allow you to define and receive notifications when specific conditions or thresholds are met.
Alerting and Event Management:
Nagios can send alerts and notifications when problems or issues are detected, helping system administrators respond to incidents promptly. It supports various notification methods, including email, SMS, and integration with on-call systems.
Nagios uses plugins to check the status of different services and resources. It comes with a wide range of built-in plugins, and you can create custom plugins to monitor specific applications and services.
Host and Service Configuration:
Nagios allows you to configure hosts and services you want to monitor and define specific criteria for what is considered “healthy” or “unhealthy.”
Nagios typically provides a centralized web-based dashboard for monitoring and managing the entire environment. It displays the status of hosts and services and provides a history of alerts and notifications.
In summary, while both Collectd and Nagios are used in monitoring, Collectd is more focused on collecting and storing performance data over time, which is valuable for performance analysis and capacity planning. Nagios, on the other hand, is centered around monitoring the health and availability of services and systems, with a strong focus on alerting and event management.
Many organizations use both tools in conjunction: Collectd for collecting data and Nagios for alerting and event management. This combination allows for comprehensive system monitoring and management.
Just in case you are interested, this is what cPanel does:
"CPanel is like the control center of a website or server. It’s a user-friendly software that helps you manage everything related to your website or online presence. Think of it as the dashboard of your car, where you can control all the important features without needing to be a mechanic. With cPanel, you can:
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Install Software: You can quickly install different apps and software to add new features or functionality to your website. It’s like downloading and installing apps on your phone.
Manage Domains: If you have multiple websites or domain names, you can keep them organized and set up new ones. It’s like managing a collection of different books in a library.
Monitor Visitors: You can see how many people are visiting your website, where they’re coming from, and what they’re doing on your site. It’s like having a visitor counter and map in your store to see where your customers are from.
Create Backups: You can make copies of your website, so if something goes wrong, you can quickly restore it. It’s like making a safety copy of your important files.
Manage Security: You can set up security measures to protect your website from hackers and other threats. It’s like having locks and alarms for your online home.
And More: There are many other tools and features that can help you run your website smoothly and efficiently.
So, cPanel is your go-to place for managing your online presence without having to be a tech expert. It makes things easy and helps you keep everything in order, just like your car’s dashboard helps you drive smoothly."